Justice Rancourt, a native of Quebec City, completed his studies at Jean-XXIII elementary school, La Camaradière high school and CEGEP Garneau. He holds both a Bachelor of Social Science (Industrial Relations) and a Bachelor of Laws from Université Laval. He was called to the Quebec Bar in 1985.
Justice Rancourt practised law with the firm McDougall Caron from 1985 to 1987. In 1988, he joined Ogilvy Renault (now Norton Rose Fulbright), where he was a member of the Employment and Labour Law Group, serving as the Group's local chair and then national chair, and was also a member of the firm’s national management committee.
He has authored a number of articles on employment and labour law, occupational health and safety, and fundamental rights and freedoms. He has also lectured at conferences on these subjects, and he taught at the Quebec Bar's École de formation professionnelle for 15 years.
Justice Rancourt was appointed to the Superior Court on June 20, 2015, and elevated to the Court of Appeal of Quebec on June 21, 2017.